Author Name: krishnendu

About The Author
I am krishnendu behera from orissa,inda.I am 2nd year b.tech biotechnology student.

During the past one hundred years the demand for the conventional energy sources such as fossil fuels which are not renewable have increased tremendously, as a result of which these sources are rapidly getting exhausted and fear of extinction in near future has crept into the mind of scientists, environment thinkers and Rulers. To develop new and renewable sources of energy for survival has tossed the minds of thinkers today. First-generation biofuels rely on food crops as their feedstock. But it’s a loser in food vs. fuel comparison. Second-generation biofuels had used lignocelluloses biomass as feedstock, among them dedicated non-edible crops and agricultural residue such as corn stalks. But it still struggling in technological aspect. Autotrophic algae are relatively simple plant-like organism that capture light energy through photosynthesis and use it to convert inorganic substances to organic matter and store the trapped energy in the form of carbohydrates and other hydrocarbons. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic organisms and depending on the species they can produce different feedstock for energy generation. • Lipids for biodiesel and jet fuel production, • Carbohydrates for ethanol production, • Hydrocarbon and isoprenoids for gasoline production, • Hydrogen(as direct synthesis from microalgae) Beyond that, the complete algal biomass can be processed for energy production. The different energy conversion paths for algal biomass include. • Gasification for syngas and BtL-production, • Hydrothermal gasification for hydrogen production, • Methane production by anaerobic digestion, • Co-combustion for electricity production. Harvesting of microalgae: • Open pond-It is cheap, but exposed to contamination. limited species suitability and production rate is low • Bioreactor-It is too expensive, but the culture is in better controlled n well developed environment. Artificial light can be distributed to allow higher productivity. Extraction of oil from the microalgae: • Expeller/Press-Algae is dried. Oil content can be “pressed” out with an oil press. Extract 70-75% of oil out of algae. • Hexane solvent method-Uses chemical (such as hexane and methanol). It can be harmful and explosive. The cold press and hexane solvent = exact 95% of oil. • Supercritical fluid extraction-CO2 is liquefied under pressure and heated to the point that it has the properties of both a liquid and gas. This liquefied fluid then acts as the solvent in extracting the oil. It can extract almost 100% of the oils. But this process is expensive one Production Technology for various energy from microalgae oil: PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Oillgae has wide range of practical application. Algae growth doesn’t need land so we save land for food cultivation as well as it’s eco-friendly aspect. It can be grown on sewage water and also it fixes atmospheric carbon-dioxide. The input for algae cultivation is very-less as compare to its output. CONCLUSION: Microalgae have many advantages over conventional energy crops such as potential for high yield biomass production. The reduction of production cost is possible by using microalgae for environmental services. Microalgae production could become economically feasible in the future when biotechnical, environmental and economic hurdles will be surmounted.

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